How a Vaccine is made


Vaccines contain the same germs that cause disease. (For example, measles vaccine contains measles virus, and Hib vaccine contains Hib bacteria.) But they have been either killed or weakened to the point that they don't make you sick. Some vaccines contain only a part of the disease germ.

A vaccine stimulates your immune system to produce antibodies, exactly like it would if you were exposed to the disease. After getting vaccinated, you develop immunity to that disease, without having to get the disease first.

This is what makes vaccines such powerful medicine. Unlike most medicines, which treat or cure diseases, vaccines prevent them.
Before a vaccine is ever given to people, FDA oversees extensive lab testing of the vaccine that can take several years to make sure it is safe and effective. After the lab, testing in people begins, and it can take several more years before the clinical studies are complete and the vaccine is licensed.

Once a vaccine is licensed, FDA, CDC, National Institutes of Health (NIH), and other federal agencies routinely monitor its use and investigate any potential safety concerns.
Like any medicine, vaccines can cause side effects such as a low-grade fever, or pain and redness at injection site. Mild reactions go away within a few days on their own. Severe, long lasting side effects are usually very rare.

The administration of vaccines is called vaccination
Vaccination is the most effective method of preventing infectious diseases; widespread immunity due to vaccination is largely responsible for the worldwide eradication of smallpox and the restriction of diseases such as polio, measles, and tetanus from much of the world. The effectiveness of vaccination has been widely studied and verified; for example, vaccines that have proven effective include the influenza vaccine, the HPV vaccine, and the chicken pox vaccine. The World Health Organization (WHO) reports that licensed vaccines are currently available for twenty-five different preventable infections.


All ingredients of vaccines play necessary roles either in making the vaccine, triggering the body to develop immunity, or in ensuring that the final product is safe and effective. Some of these include:

  • Adjuvants help boost the body's response to vaccine. (Also found in antacids, buffered aspirin, antiperspirants, etc.)
  • Stabilizers help keep vaccine effective after manufactured (Also found in foods such as Jell-O® and resides in the body naturally.)
  • Formaldehyde is used prevent contamination by bacteria during the vaccine manufacturing process. Resides in body naturally (more in body than vaccines). (Also, found in environment, preservatives, and household products.)
  • Thimerosal is also used during the manufacturing process but is no longer an ingredient in any vaccine except multi-dose vials of the flu vaccine. Single dose vials of the flu vaccine are available as an alternative. No reputable scientific studies have found an association between thimerosal in vac­cines and autism.



https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vaccine
https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/vpd/vpd-vac-basics.html
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Guest - Paul on Saturday, 18 April 2020 22:58
Immunization Safety ReviewThimerosal-Containing Vaccines and Neurodevelopmental Disorders

Thimerosal, an organic mercury compound that is metabolized to ethylmercury and thiosalicylate, has been used since the 1930s as a preservative in some vaccines. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulations require that preservatives be used in multidose vials of vaccines, except live viral vaccines, to prevent bacterial and fungal contamination (General Biologics Product Standards, 2000), which can lead to serious illness and death in recipients (Wilson, 1967).

In 1999, FDA determined that under the recommended childhood immunization schedule, infants might be exposed to cumulative doses of ethylmercury that exceed some federal safety guidelines established for ingestion of methylmercury, another form of organic mercury (Ball et al., 2001). In July 1999, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) and the U.S. Public Health Service (PHS) issued a joint statement recommending the removal of thimerosal from vaccines as soon as possible (CDC, 1999a). The statement also recommended a temporary suspension of the birth dose of hepatitis B vaccine for children born to low-risk mothers until a thimerosal-free alternative became available.

With the FDA approval of a thimerosal-free version of DTaP vaccine in March 2001, all formulations of vaccines on the recommended childhood immunization schedule that are given to children six years of age or younger are available thimerosal-free in the United States (CDC, 2001a).

These actions do not, however, reduce the importance of trying to resolve whether the past presence of thimerosal in some vaccines could have caused neurodevelopmental problems in some children. Moreover, thimerosal remains in use in many other countries, which continue to depend on multi-dose supplies of vaccine that must be protected from microbial contamination.

CONCLUSIONS

The committee concludes that although the hypothesis that exposure to thimerosal-containing vaccines could be associated with neurodevelopmental disorders is not established and rests on indirect and incomplete information, primarily from analogies with methylmercury and levels of maximum mercury exposure from vaccines given in children, the hypothesis is biologically plausible.

The committee also concludes that the evidence is inadequate to accept or reject a causal relationship between thimerosal exposures from childhood vaccines and the neurodevelopmental disorders of autism, ADHD, and speech or language delay.

PUBLIC HEALTH RESPONSE RECOMMENDATIONS

Policy Review and Analysis

The committee recommends the use of the thimerosal-free DTaP, Hib, and hepatitis B vaccines in the United States, despite the fact that there might be remaining supplies of thimerosal-containing vaccine available.

The committee recommends that full consideration be given by appropriate professional societies and government agencies to removing thimerosal from vaccines administered to infants, children, or pregnant women in the United States.

The committee recommends that appropriate professional societies and government agencies review their policies about the non-vaccine biological and pharmaceutical products that contain thimerosal and are used by infants, children, and pregnant women in the United States.

The committee recommends that policy analyses be conducted that will inform these discussions in the future.

The committee recommends a review and assessment of how public health policy decisions are made under uncertainty.

The committee recommends a review of the strategies used to communicate rapid changes in vaccine policy, and it recommends research on how to improve those strategies.

Public Health and Biomedical Research

The committee recommends a diverse public health and biomedical research portfolio.

Epidemiological Research

The committee recommends case-control studies examining the potential link between neurodevelopmental disorders and thimerosal-containing vaccines.

The committee recommends further analysis of neurodevelopmental disorders in cohorts of children who did not receive thimerosal-containing doses as part of a clinical trial of DTaP vaccine.

The committee recommends conducting epidemiological studies that compare the incidence and prevalence of neurodevelopmental disorders before and after the removal of thimerosal from vaccines.

The committee recommends an increased effort to identify the primary sources and levels of prenatal and postnatal background exposure to thimerosal (e.g., Rho (D) Immune Globulin) and other forms of mercury (e.g., maternal consumption of fish) in infants, children, and pregnant women.

Clinical Research

The committee recommends research on how children, including those diagnosed with neurodevelopmental disorders, metabolize and excrete metals—particularly mercury.

The committee recommends continued research on theoretical modeling of ethylmercury exposures, including the incremental burden of thimerosal with background mercury exposure from other sources.

The committee recommends careful, rigorous, and scientific investigations of chelation when used in children with neurodevelopmental disorders, especially autism.

Basic Science Research

The committee recommends research to identify a safe, effective, and inexpensive alternative to thimerosal for countries that decide they need to switch from using thimerosal as a preservative.

The committee recommends research in appropriate animal models on the neurodevelopmental effects of ethylmercury.
-Source: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK223724/

And don't get me started about the dangers of Formaldehyde...

Thimerosal, an organic mercury compound that is metabolized to ethylmercury and thiosalicylate, has been used since the 1930s as a preservative in some vaccines. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulations require that preservatives be used in multidose vials of vaccines, except live viral vaccines, to prevent bacterial and fungal contamination (General Biologics Product Standards, 2000), which can lead to serious illness and death in recipients (Wilson, 1967). In 1999, FDA determined that under the recommended childhood immunization schedule, infants might be exposed to cumulative doses of ethylmercury that exceed some federal safety guidelines established for ingestion of methylmercury, another form of organic mercury (Ball et al., 2001). In July 1999, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) and the U.S. Public Health Service (PHS) issued a joint statement recommending the removal of thimerosal from vaccines as soon as possible (CDC, 1999a). The statement also recommended a temporary suspension of the birth dose of hepatitis B vaccine for children born to low-risk mothers until a thimerosal-free alternative became available. With the FDA approval of a thimerosal-free version of DTaP vaccine in March 2001, all formulations of vaccines on the recommended childhood immunization schedule that are given to children six years of age or younger are available thimerosal-free in the United States (CDC, 2001a). These actions do not, however, reduce the importance of trying to resolve whether the past presence of thimerosal in some vaccines could have caused neurodevelopmental problems in some children. Moreover, thimerosal remains in use in many other countries, which continue to depend on multi-dose supplies of vaccine that must be protected from microbial contamination. CONCLUSIONS The committee concludes that although the hypothesis that exposure to thimerosal-containing vaccines could be associated with neurodevelopmental disorders is not established and rests on indirect and incomplete information, primarily from analogies with methylmercury and levels of maximum mercury exposure from vaccines given in children, the hypothesis is biologically plausible. The committee also concludes that the evidence is inadequate to accept or reject a causal relationship between thimerosal exposures from childhood vaccines and the neurodevelopmental disorders of autism, ADHD, and speech or language delay. PUBLIC HEALTH RESPONSE RECOMMENDATIONS Policy Review and Analysis The committee recommends the use of the thimerosal-free DTaP, Hib, and hepatitis B vaccines in the United States, despite the fact that there might be remaining supplies of thimerosal-containing vaccine available. The committee recommends that full consideration be given by appropriate professional societies and government agencies to removing thimerosal from vaccines administered to infants, children, or pregnant women in the United States. The committee recommends that appropriate professional societies and government agencies review their policies about the non-vaccine biological and pharmaceutical products that contain thimerosal and are used by infants, children, and pregnant women in the United States. The committee recommends that policy analyses be conducted that will inform these discussions in the future. The committee recommends a review and assessment of how public health policy decisions are made under uncertainty. The committee recommends a review of the strategies used to communicate rapid changes in vaccine policy, and it recommends research on how to improve those strategies. Public Health and Biomedical Research The committee recommends a diverse public health and biomedical research portfolio. Epidemiological Research The committee recommends case-control studies examining the potential link between neurodevelopmental disorders and thimerosal-containing vaccines. The committee recommends further analysis of neurodevelopmental disorders in cohorts of children who did not receive thimerosal-containing doses as part of a clinical trial of DTaP vaccine. The committee recommends conducting epidemiological studies that compare the incidence and prevalence of neurodevelopmental disorders before and after the removal of thimerosal from vaccines. The committee recommends an increased effort to identify the primary sources and levels of prenatal and postnatal background exposure to thimerosal (e.g., Rho (D) Immune Globulin) and other forms of mercury (e.g., maternal consumption of fish) in infants, children, and pregnant women. Clinical Research The committee recommends research on how children, including those diagnosed with neurodevelopmental disorders, metabolize and excrete metals—particularly mercury. The committee recommends continued research on theoretical modeling of ethylmercury exposures, including the incremental burden of thimerosal with background mercury exposure from other sources. The committee recommends careful, rigorous, and scientific investigations of chelation when used in children with neurodevelopmental disorders, especially autism. Basic Science Research The committee recommends research to identify a safe, effective, and inexpensive alternative to thimerosal for countries that decide they need to switch from using thimerosal as a preservative. The committee recommends research in appropriate animal models on the neurodevelopmental effects of ethylmercury. -Source: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK223724/ And don't get me started about the dangers of Formaldehyde...
Guest
Wednesday, 07 December 2022